Essay Answers (7th August 2021)
Saturday 7th August, 2021.
Paper III & II: Objective & Essay – Government 10:00am–12:40pm.
Authority can be defined as the ability to give a command and to ensure that people yield to the commandment.It is associated with the ability to make decisions and enforce it.
(i) political authority: this is the power given to a group of people by the constitution to make decisions and enforce obedience.
(ii) traditional authority; this is the power legitimized and defined by customs and traditions. It is acquired through inheritance.
(iii) coercive authority: this is the of authority that nvolved the use of force.
(iv)delegated authority: this is the authority conferred on a subordinate to exercise certain powers on specified authority.
(v) charismatic authority: this type of authority is based on extra ordinary personal qualities of an individual.
(i) membership of international organization: such as U.N.O, AU, OPEC, ECOWAS etc which many nations belong to had placed serious limitations to the sovereignty of such nations.
(ii) influence of powerful nation: powerful countries like U.S.A, USSR, BRITAIN etc have a lot of influence on the external sovereignty of smaller and weaker nations.
(iii) external aids: many poverty stricken nations mortgage their external sovereignty for economic , military and technical assistance.
(iv) supremacy of the Constitution: no matter the institution or a body in which sovereignty is located , the power of such body or institution is limited by the Constitution of the state. No body is above the law of the land.
(v) diplomatic immunity: diplomats representing their countries in other countries of the world have diplomatic immunity. Some of their actions can undermine the sovereignty of their host states.
socialization; this refers to a process by which citizens are educated on the values, attitudes and beliefs of the political system. Political culture of a the society is transmitted from one generation to another through political socialization.
(i) the family: children from politically conscious families tend to be more politically aware and interested in politics.
(ii) the school: it is in schools people starts to learn and practice how to play political roles.
(iii) the peer groups; a person is known by groups he keeps. One’s view including political views are influenced by ones playmates and friends.
(iv) the mass media; this includes radio, television, newspaper etc. Mass media passes different education to the people including political education.
(v) religious groups: it is difficult to divorce politics from religion. The mosque and churches direct their members on the political course to follow.
(i) appointment: the governor had power to appoint , promote, discipline and dismiss any public servants in the colony.
(ii) policy formulations: he formulated economic and social policies for the colony.
(iii)assent: the governor signed all bills passed by the legislative council.
(iv) meeting: he presided over the meetings of both the executive and legislative council.
(v) allocation of land: allocation of land acquired by the government were approved by him.
(vi) responsible : the governor was responsible to the crown through the secretary of state for the colonies.
(i) the head of state/ president: the head of state sometimes called the president , is also the commander in chief of the Nigerian Armed forces. He presided over the meetings of the Armed Forces Ruling Council (AFRC), the council of state and the council of ministers.
(ii)Supreme military council (SMC)/ Armed forces ruling council (AFRC); this body is the highest legislative body of the military government in Nigeria. It comprises of the Head of state/ president who is the chairman, the chief of defence staff, the heads of the Army, Navy and Air Force popularly called the service chiefs, the inspector general of police , justice minister, secretary to the federal military government and high ranking military officers.
(iii) the council of state: this organ advises the Head of state on important national issues. It is made up of the president as the chairman, the chief of general staff, former Heads of state and all state military governors.
(iv) national council of ministers: this the organ that implement decisions and policies made by the AFRC. It is headed by the Head of state or president and assisted by the chief of General staff with all federal ministers as members.
(v)the state military governors: a state military Governor is the chief executive and the Head of the state military government and representative of the Head of state in the State. He is responsible to the Head of state and the commander in chief of the Armed Forces. The governor performed both the executive and legislative functions. He is the chairman of the state executive council. He appoints the state commissioners and other officers.
(vi) the judiciary; it remained the same as in the civilian era with Chief Justice as the head. Inclusive are various tribunals which had judges and military officers as members.
political party; this can be defined as an organized group of people who share similar political ideology, opinions, principles, interest and beliefs with the aims of gaining political power and governing the country.
(i) education: political parties educates the people on their political rights.
(ii) training ground: political parties creates a training ground for young politicians.
(iii) serves as a link: it serves as a link between the government and the society.
(iv) choosing of leaders: it provides the electorates opportunity of choosing good leaders for the country.
(v) watchdog: political parties that are not in power act as watchdog on the activities of the party in power.
(i)foster friendly relations: nations of the world became friendly through economic, political and socio- cultural interactions.
(ii)lead to world peace: the hostilities in the world are reduced to the bearest minimum through economic, political and social- cultural interactions among the nations of the world.
(iii)lead to equitable re- distribution of natural resources: through economic interactions among the nations of the world, natural resources of the world that are unevenly distributed by the nature are equally re- distributed.
(iv) spread of technical knowledge: through interactions among the nations of the world, the technical knowledge of the so called advanced nations are spread to other less advanced ones.
(v) cultural exchanges; social- cultural interactions among the nations of the world lead to exchange of cultural artifacts and cross cultural fertilizations.
(vi) attraction of foreign aids; a lot of foreign aids are attracted to the less developed countries through their interactions among with the more advanced nations.
(i)waste of financial, human and material resources; a lot of money was spent in prosecuting the war, a great number of life were lost and properties unestimated went into the war.
(ii) hardship; innocent citizens and many homes were displaced coupled with severe hardship.
(iii) dislocation of educational system; a good number of tertiary institutions were either dislocated or destroyed and some others closed down. Academic pursuit was paralysed.
(iv) truncated economic activities; economic activities were truncated, industries were no longer producing because of the war . The economy of the country was at a standstill.
(v) increased crimes rate; there was increased crimes rate in the country as displaced soldiers were not full demobilised.
(vi) currency policy; the currency policy of the federal government made some sections of the country poorer.
Completed Good luck
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2021/2022 NECO Questions and Answers for Government (Obj and Theory)
2021 NECO Government Theory
This section contains only the theory. Scroll down for the objective part.
SECTION A(Answer ONLY TWO Questions)
Sovereignty can be defined as the supreme power of the state to make and enforce laws within her territory without any external influence or interference.
(i) By Membership of international organizational organizations.
(ii) By signing of international treaties.
(iii) By customs and traditions of the republic
(iv) By technical and military aids
(v) By public opinion and land-locked.
Fiscal federalism is concerned with understanding which functions and instruments are best centralized and which are best placed in the sphere of decentralized levels of government. In other words, it is the study of how competencies (expenditure side) and fiscal instruments (revenue side) are allocated across different (vertical) layers of the administration.
Delegated Legislation is a term which covers the vast amount of Legislation made by Government Agencies and the Governor-General under authority of Acts of Parliaments, which delegate this power to agencies.
Collective responsibility is the convention whereby individual members of the government are held accountable for the actions and decisions of government as a whole.
Checks and balances , principle of government under which separate branches are empowered to prevent actions by other branches and are induced to share power. In other words Checks and balances are applied primarily in constitutional governments .
SECTION B(Answer ONLY THREE Questions)
(6) Write short notes on the following:
(i) The Preamble
(ii) The Government
(iii) The Territory
(iv) Separation of Powers
This part of the constitution gives guidance to the constitution. Here we are given the chapter, sections and subsections of the constitution and pages where they can be found. The preamble is meant to direct or serve as a content page of the Nigerian constitution. The preamble could also be found on the 3rd to the with page of the Nigerian constitution of 1999.
There must be a government whether elective or not run the affairs of the state. The type of government does not matter. It may be a military regime coo loan administration, Oligarchy, Diarchy, Monarchy, there must be a government to be in-charge of the affairs of the states. In other words The government system is Nigeria according to the constitution shows that we are operating the presidential system of government that is the President as the ceremonial head and also the executive head and also the executive head. Section 130-140 of the 1999 constitution shows and takes about the President of the federation.
(iii) The territory:
A state, legally is a defined boundary, although, such boundary is suppose to be permanent, if it change at all, such changes must not be at random. It is the territorial entities. A community with a defined territory must be inherited by human territory must be inherited by human beings the section 2 and 3 of the 1999 constitution talks about Nigeria as a territorial state.
Sovereignty could be defined as the ability for a nation to be total control without external interference. Nigeria according to 1999 constitution is a sovereign state and it can be found in section 2 of the Nigeria constitution.
(vi) The Federalism:
Federalism has to do with the division of Government, state and local government,
And a federal system of no government is the ached by a ceremonial head known as the president it can be found in chapter part of the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria.
It was duty of the head of the council of Oyo Mesi, the Bashorun, to consult the Ifa oracle for the approval of the gods. Though the appointment of a new king was the duty of the Oyomesi, the new Alaafin was seen as an appointment by the gods.
(ii)Ensured policies were implemented:
The Oyomesi was tasked with making sure that the policy decisions taken by the state was implemented throughout the empire. This was to ensure that there was full compliance.
(iii) Checks on the powers of the Oba:
The Oyomesi served as a check on the powers of the Alaafin or king. Led by the Bashorun, the Oyomesi could dethrone the Alaafin if the people lost confidence in his administration.
(iv) Initiate laws:
The mesi had the power to initiate laws for consideration and subsequent adoption if deemed necessary for the efficient administration of the empire.
(v) Installation of a new Alaafin:
Oyomesi was to take part in the installation of a new king after a candidate was found. The installation of kings was one of the high points in the administration of the empire and the Oyomesi made sure they partook in all its activities.
(vi)Select a new Alaafin:
Oyomesi was to take part in the selection and replacement of the Alaafin or king when he died or abdicated his throne.
(i) The economic and social council help to serve as the central forum for discussions on international economic and social issues of other countries. In other words they also helps to promote higher standards of living.
(ii) The economic and social council helps to find solutions of international economic, social, health and related problems, and international cultural and educational cooperation. In other words they also helps to encourage universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
(iii)The economic and social council helps to assist the organization of major international conferences in the field of economic and social and related fields. In other words They make or initiate studies and reports with respect to the council.
(iv) The economic and social council helps international economic and social matters
to prepare draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly. In other words they help to coordinate the work of the specialized agencies and programme.
(v) The economic and social council helps to find solutions to international economic and social issues to undertake/ facilitate studies and bring out repots. In other words It studies the current challenges and proposes forward looking strategies for advancement and empowerment of women & girls.
(vi)The economic and social council helps prepare draft convention for UNGA arrange for consultations with NGO’s. In other words they co-ordination, and develop standards and norms for global statistical information system.
(i) Formulation of Policies:
The senior administrative and technical civil servants help to formulate the policies and programmes of the government. These are presented to the ministers and commissioners for consideration and final decisions.
(ii) Drafting of Bills:
Experts in the civil service, especially lawyers, assist the government in the drafting of bills which eventually become laws.
(iii) Advice to the ministers/commissioners:
The top civil servants act as advisers to the ministers and commissioners in charge of their ministries. Their relevant expertise and experience afford them the opportunity of providing dependable guide and information on complex government policies and programmes. They also help the political appointees to furnish the legislature with relevant information requested on their ministry.
(iv) Implementation of government policies:
The top civil servants coordinate and supervise their
subordinates to ensure the smooth execution of the policies and programmes of government. This ensures the provision
of amenities to improve the health, education, social and general life of their people.
(v) Preparation of annual estimates and budgets:
The civil servants draft and prepare the annual budget and estimates of government ministries, departments and
(vi) Keeping government records and property:
Civil servants gather and supply very useful information on which government policies and programmes are based. In other words They keep and preserve government property.
First, you need to read in line with the NECO Government syllabus. The NECO syllabus contains all the topics you need to read for your NECO government examination. This simply means that your questions will not come outside these areas of concentration.
Before I show the syllabus, I want you to know that NECO does not have its own syllabus instead it follows WAEC Syllabus. 95% of the topics in WAEC syllabus come out in the examination. So you need to download and read them. Download it below.
Thirdly, do well to follow all the examination instructions strictly. Don’t skip anyone. This is exactly the reason you need to read all the instructions carefully.
Make sure you don’t answer more questions than expected. It has its own penalty if you answer more questions and the penalty is to reduce your score. So, to avoid risking your chances of passing, do well to answer exactly the number of questions required.
More so, do well to attempt all questions. Do not dwell on one question for so long. For the objective part, 30 – 40 minutes is enough for you to answer your questions and move to the essay part.